Latin Present System and Verb To Be

Here are some Latin grammar present verb system endings and the verb to be. At the end I included some notes on the parts of a Roman house from my high school Latin class notebook. Just trying to post every week, and I am little late in posting this week as I try to post Monday night currently. Hopefully, it intrigues people to look into this part of history a little. It is very interesting, and can be worthwhile to read.


Present System (I love, I am loving, I do love)                            Verb To Be                                            Amar (to love)

o (I)                                 mus (We)                                                              sum              sumus                             amo     (I love)                 amamus (We love)

s (You)                           tis (You plural)                                                  es                  estis                                 amas   (You love)           amatis (You pl love)

t (He, She, It)              nt (They)                                                               est                sunt                                 amat    (She loves)          amant (They love)


Imperfect (I was loving, I used to love)                                         Verb To Be

bam                     bamus                                                                              eram             eramus

bas                       batis                                                                                 eras                eratis

bat                       bant                                                                                  erat                erant


Future (I will love, I shall love)                                                        Verb To Be

bo                      bimus                                                                                ero                 erimus

bis                     bitus                                                                                  eris                 eritis

bit                     bunt                                                                                   erit                 erunt


Perfect (I loved, I have love, I did love)                                      Verb To Be

i                        imus                                                                                    fui                   fuimus

isti                   istis                                                                                     fuisti              fuistis

it                      erunt                                                                                  fuit                  fuerunt


Pluperfect (I had loved)                                                                     Verb To Be

eram              eramus                                                                              fueram           fueramus

eras                eratis                                                                                  fueras             fueratis

erat                erant                                                                                   fuerat             fuerant


Future Perfect (I will have loved)                                                Verb To Be

ero                 erimus                                                                               fuero              fuerimus

eris                eritis                                                                                   fueris             fueritis

erit                erint                                                                                    fuerit             fuerint


Present Passive (They are being)

r (I, first person singular)                                                 mur (We, first person plural)

ris (You, second person singular)                                 mini (You plural, second person plural)

tur (He, She, It, third person singular)                       ntur (They, third person plural)


Four conjugations, infinitives

First conjugation        – āre – amo, amare (to love)

Second                            – ēre – habeo, habēre (to have)

Third                               – ere – rego, regere (to rule) facio, facere (to make)

Fourth                            – īre – venio, venire (to come)


 Three Classes in Roman Society

Patricians – upper class- lawyers, senators, merchants, etc.

Equistrians – middle class

Plebians – lower class, commoners, slaves


Roman Saying – Panem et circensesroman coliseum

translates as bread and circuses and basically meant that if you feed people well and provide entertainment it generally keeps them happy and makes them friends, hence the gladiator games provided bread and entertainment for all of the people throughout various locations in the Roman empire


Parts of a Roman House

ianua – door

tabernae – store/shops

cubicula – bedroom

atrium – dome, entrance

impluvium – pool, located in atrium probably had not ceiling above it

compluvium – area around pool located in atrium

tablinum – office/study

paristylim – courtyard

culina – kitchen

triclinium – eating area with three couches where servants fed them

hortus – garden

probably had some benches and waiting areas also, there were also bedrooms for slaves


Ancient Roman society was made up of about 70% slaves, and the gladiator games did involve killing people. Nowadays, most people would probably not approve and or at least see that as normal.

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